This strengthened his authority as Emperor and secured the succession of his own son to the Imperial throne. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Otto II was made joint-ruler of Germany in 961, at an early age, and his father named him co-Emperor in 967 to secure his succession to the throne. The Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps. Roman magistrates on official business were expected to wear the form of toga associated with their office; different togas were worn by different ranks; senior magistrates had the right to togas bordered with purple. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. His reign marked a high point of the medieval imperial rule and a relatively peaceful period for the Empire. Conrad II - Holy Roman Emperor - 1027-1039. On several occasions, Lothair led his full-brothers Pippin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father to protest against attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. While marching to reclaim the city in 1002, however, Otto III suffered a sudden fever and died in a castle near Civita Castellana at the age of 21. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I (Franz I. Charles was only 54 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles III - Holy Roman Emperor - 881-887. At times, two people claimed the title. Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619), a member of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. While these powers granted the emperor a great deal of personal pride and influence, they did not include legal authority. Their courts were peripatetic, and Imperial progressions through the provinces made much use of the impressive, theatrical adventus, or "Imperial arrival" ceremony, which employed an elaborate choreography of etiquette to emphasise the emperor's elevation above other mortals.  In exchange for the surrender of Constantinople, the emperor's life would be spared and he would continue to rule in Mystra. Conrad extended his power beyond his inherited lands, receiving the favor of the princes of the Kingdom of Germany. When Trajan acceded to the purple he chose to follow his predecessor's example, adopting Hadrian as his own heir, and the practice then became the customary manner of imperial succession for the next century, producing the "Five Good Emperors" and the Empire's period of greatest stability. The word princeps (plural principes), meaning "first", was a republican term used to denote the leading citizen(s) of the state. ("Oblate of Saint Benedict"), was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. William II of Holland (February 1227 – 28 January 1256) was a Count of Holland and Zeeland (1235–56). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine (von Habsburg-Lothringen in German). Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Rudolf I (also known as Rudolf of Habsburg) (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Latin: Rudolphus, Czech: Rudolf Habsburský) (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. His rule came to an end after the fall of the last major Byzantine city, Corinth. He created the Mesta, an association of sheep farmers in the central plain, but debased the coinage to finance his claim to the German crown. Dominus Noster ("Our Lord"): an honorific title; the praenomen of later emperors. Her maternal grandparents were Otto-William, Duke of Burgundy and Ermentrude of Rheims. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Alternative History is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. The empire was divided into East and West, each ruled by an Augustus assisted by a Caesar as emperor-in-waiting. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. 395: PARTITION - EASTERN EMPIRE: Dynasty of Theodosius: 395-408: Arcadius: 408-450: Theodosius II: 450-457: Marcian (m. Pulcheria, gnddghtr Theod I) 457-474 Some later historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus' death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1625). While he was preparing to counterattack Muslim forces, a major uprising by the Slavs broke out in 983, forcing the Empire to abandon its major territorial holdings east of the Elbe river. The Holy Roman Emperor (German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, Latin: Romanorum Imperator) was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman Emperors of Antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a claimant to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). In 27 BC, Octavian appeared before the Senate and offered to retire from active politics and government; the Senate not only requested he remain, but increased his powers and made them lifelong, awarding him the title of Augustus (the elevated or divine one, somewhat less than a god but approaching divinity).
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