Then that fair Nymphe Alpheias [Arethusa] . : Seneca, Hercules Furens 658 ff (trans. Proserpina is an ancient Roman goddess whose story is the basis of a myth of Springtime. And there lived Cyane, the most renowned of all the Nymphae Sicelidae (Sicilian Nymphs), who gave her pool its name. "Tartarus hopes not for you [Caesar in the guise of Hades] as king, and may such monstrous lust of empire never seize you, though Greece is enchanted by the Elysian fields, and Proserpine [Persephone] reclaimed cares not to follow her mother. ", Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. When Jupiter ordered her return, Pluto struck a deal with Jupiter, saying that since she had stolen his pomegranate seeds, she must stay with him four months of the year in return. The cult originated in southern Italy (part of Magna Graecia) and was probably based on the women-only Greek Thesmophoria, a mystery cult to Demeter and Persephone as "Mother and Maiden". . The grieving mother wept, as if the loss were new. The only one who saw was Orphne's son, Ascalaphus, whom she, no the least famous of the Nymphae Avernales (Infernal Nymphs), bore once to Acheron in her dusky bower. The accompanying scenes, depicting Aeneas and Anchises and Narcissus, are today located in the residence of the Turkish Ambassador, Washington, D.C. Jutting into the vast ocean with its three cliffs is Trinacris [Sicily], named after its shape. As she was gathering flowers with her playmates in a meadow, the earth opened and Pluto, god of the dead, appeared and carried her off to be his queen in the world below. ", Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 145 (trans. I too, if humble things may be compared with great, was loved; Anapus married me; but I was wooed and won, not, like this girl, frightened and forced.’ She held out her arms outstretched to bar his way. : Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. Helice replies this to her : ‘Night is guiltless. Then Cupido [Eros]guided by his mother, opened his quiver and of all his thousand arrows selected one, the sharpest and the surest, the arrow most obedient to the bow, and bent the pliant horn against his knee and shot the barbed shaft deep in Dis' [Haides'] heart. . ‘Stop, stop!’ she cried, ‘You cannot take this girl to wife against Queen Ceres' will! Where the girl was she knew not, but reproached the whole wide world--ungrateful, not deserving her gift of grain--and Trinacria [Sicily] in chief where she had found the traces of her loss. . Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : Why should Tartara (Hell) lag behind? Its many cities include fertile Henna with its well-ploughed soil. The most extensive myth of Proserpina in Latin is Claudian's (4th century CE).  He abducted her in order to marry her and live with her in the underworld of which he was the ruler. Proserpina was in Sicily, at the Pergusa Lake near Enna, where she was playing with some nymphs and collecting flowers, when Pluto came out from the volcano Etna with four black horses named Orphnaeus, Aethon, Nycteus and Alastor. To be Jove's brother, what a splendid thing!--if that were all! "The Sirenes, daughter of the River Achelous and the Muse Melpomene, wandering away after the rape of Proserpina [Persephone], came to the land of Apollo, and there were made flying creatures by the will of Ceres [Demeter] because they had not brought help to her daughter. . 36 ff (trans. Even so she gave a clue, clear beyond doubt, and floating on her pool she showed the well-known sash which Persephone had chanced to drop there in the sacred spring. So for the sake of our joint sovereignty, if that can touch your pride, unite in love that goddess and her uncle [Haides].’ Afterwards Ceres [Demeter] obtained from Jove [Zeus] permission for her to stay half of the year with her, and half with Pluto [Haides]. Why not there too extend your mother's empire and your own? to C1st A.D.) : Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 145 (trans. Such a son-in-law, if you, Ma'am, but consent, will not disgrace us. Cool-fresh Arethusa had called divine matrons to a sacred feast; the blonde goddess came. But if your heart's so set to part them, Proserpina shall reach the sky again on one condition, that in Hell her lips have touched no food; such is the rule forestablished by the three Parcae [Moirai].’  She enters Roman history as part of a Triadic cult alongside Ceres and Liber, in a temple established on the Aventine Hill around 493 BC. Ceres [Demeter], seeking Porserpina [Persephone], her daughter. ", Statius, Thebaid 8. Artwork page for ‘Proserpine’, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874 on display at Tate Britain. You will learn some things and recognise more. Just as Persephone was thought to be a daughter of Demeter, Romans made Proserpina a daughter of Demeter's Roman equivalent, Ceres. When the friendly day had dimmed the stars, she sought her daughter still from sunrise until sunset hour by hour . . "The entire bulk and substance of the earth, was dedicated to father Dis [Haides] (that is, Dives, ‘the rich’, and so in Greek Plouton), because all things fall back into the earth and also arise from the earth. Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. And she shouts by turns, ‘Persephone!’ and ‘Daughter!,’ she shouts and screams each name in its turn. , Proserpina was officially introduced to Rome around 205 BCE, along with the ritus graecia cereris (a Greek form of cult dedicated to her mother Ceres), as part of Rome's general religious recruitment of deities as allies against Carthage, towards the end of the Second Punic War. Proserpine ate six pomegranate seeds, and so Pluto confined her to his kingdom six months of each year. ", Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 25 : But the Acheloides [Sirens], why should it be that they have feathers now and feet of birds, though still a girl's fair face, the sweet-voiced Sirenes? "The land [of Sicily] quakes [as Typhoeus the Giant buried beneath the island heaves] and even Rex Silentum (the king who rules the land of silence) [Pluto-Haides] shudders lest the ground in gaping seams should open and the day stream down and terrify the trembling Umpire (Shades). 417 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. . She screamed, ‘Oh, dearest mother, I'm being taken!’ And had ripped her frock apart at her breasts. Worried, Jupiter sent Mercury to order Pluto (Jupiter's brother) to free Proserpina. She threw into his face water from Phlegethon, and lo! 26 (trans.  In the early 1st century CE, Ovid gives two poetic versions of the myth in Latin: one in Book 5 of his Metamorphoses (Book 5) and another in Book 4 of his Fasti. Their rites were intended to secure a good harvest, and increase the fertility of those who partook in the mysteries. Let him go unpunished, I'll endure it unavenged, if he returns her and repairs the past.’ Jove [Zeus] calms her and uses love to excuse the act, and says, ‘He's not a shameful son-in-law. . Not so fate permitted, for the girl had broken her fast and wandering, childlike, through the orchard trees from a low branch had picked a pomegranate and peeled the yellow rind and found the seeds and nibbled seven. The mother is Ceres [Demeter]. Let us return with lapfuls of lowers.’ The worthless booty entices their girlish minds, their absorption makes the labour unfelt. Away the chariot sped; her captor urged each horse by name and shook the dark-dyed reins on mane and neck.  The new cult was installed in the already ancient Temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera, Rome's Aventine patrons of the plebs; from the end of the 3rd century BC, Demeter's temple at Enna, in Sicily, was acknowledged as Ceres' oldest, most authoritative cult centre, and Libera was recognised as Proserpina, Roman equivalent to Demeter's daughter Persephone. "Where lies the isthmus [of Cyzicus in Mysia] which is washed by the waters of Propontis . Her theft I'll bear if he'll but bring her back; a thief, a kidnapper's no proper husband for child of yours, even if she's mine no more.’ A bay confined by narrow points of land lies between Arethusa Pisaea and Cyane. . No delay : ‘Ah! "Those who, by permission of the Parcae [Moirai], returned from the lower world. Like Persephone, Proserpina is associated with the underworld realm and its ruler; and along with her mother Ceres, with the springtime growth of crops and the cycle of life, death and rebirth or renewal. :  An early 5th century Latin version of the same myth is Claudian's De raptu Proserpinae; in most cases, these Latin works identify Proserpina's underworld abductor and later consort by the Roman god of the underworld's traditional Latin name, Dis. What then, when that's not all, when he yields place to me only because the lots so fell?
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