Of course, everyday people often take a pragmatic view toward knowledge since they don’t have the time to ponder abstract philosophical ideas! Pragmatism. 2. warranted false beliefs: This type cannot exist at all. Categories (a)–(c) have Only once these questions are answered can we raise questions about existence, according to pragmatism. 2. (Of course, some philosophers consider pragmatism to be vulgar or simplistic, so not everyone agrees that it’s a good contribution! Then the argument almost immediately lapses into self-contradiction, since Vizzini concludes that he cannot drink from either cup.  In simple words, epistemology focuses on what is known to be true. Epistemology, when properly defined, is based on reasoning, which is the method for acquiring knowledge. In non-Western traditions, foundationalism was generally less dominant, even in the ancient world. Empirical knowledge relies on objective facts that have been established and can be demonstrated. For example, intuitive knowledge can be used in order to select a specific problem to be explored within a selected research area, whereas authoritative knowledge is gained during the process of literature review. It is important to justify your arguments by referring to research aim and objectives. “Is there a God?” This question belongs to…. External, objective and independent of social actors. 01 Epistemology 02 Theory 03 Methodology 04 Design 05 Study 06 Critique Along with defining KO, I also must define epistemology, theory, and method in order to address how these manifest the research literature. Is free will something that we know, or just something we experience? Epistemology has many branches that include essentialism, historical perspective, perennialsm, progressivism, empiricism, idealism, rationalism, constructivism etc. Consider the following. Logical knowledge is a creation of new knowledge through the application of logical reasoning. Ontology, however, does deal with some pretty important questions. 3. unwarranted true beliefs These are lucky guesses or coincidences and not knowledge. George Orwell argued that the Nazis had a very specific epistemology based on absolute faith in the leader (Hitler, Goebbels, Himmler, and other Nazi high command). This quote suggests not only that human knowledge is limited, but in fact that this is a good thing! Indian philosophers, for example, argued for a huge variety of epistemological methods, and generally held that there were several ways to obtain knowledge — meanwhile Western philosophers were more likely to argue for just one. Modern epistemology generally … I am not a great fool, so I can clearly not choose the wine in front of you. Cherel Bagtong August 12, 2018, 2:27 pm Reply, Thanks for a brief and concise description of the terms epistemology and ontology, Khika Prasad Nepal July 20, 2019, 5:10 pm Reply. “Nazi theory indeed specifically denies that such a thing as “the truth” exists… If the Leader says of such and such an event, ‘It never happened’ — well, it never happened. In your dissertation you are expected to address and clarify the epistemology of your study, but you are not expected to go much into the details. (2009) “Business and Management Research: Paradigms and Practices” Palgrave Macmillan,  Table adapted from Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. This is an example of a foundationalist epistemology — it has just one axiom, namely “the Leader is never wrong.” Clearly, this axiom is untrue, and therefore the entire epistemology is wrong. It’s one of the oldest branches of philosophy, reaching far back into the time before Socrates. Is there even a difference? 3. Epistemology (/ ɪ ˌ p ɪ s t ɪ ˈ m ɒ l ə dʒ i /; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning 'knowledge', and -logy) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. But you must have known I was not a great fool, you would have counted on it, so I can clearly not choose the wine in front of me.” (Vizzini, The Princess Bride), This classic comedy routine demonstrates both foundationalism and coherentism. However, during the time that philosophy was on the rise, the Greeks were developing a system of deductive reasoning, which is one of the main tools of foundationalism. In the Western tradition, formal epistemology started with the Greeks, who were mainly foundationalists, though by no means all — the Greeks actually disagreed about nearly everything. It is a way of thinking opposite to ontology. Alternatively, if you consider subjective meanings and non-quantifiable data as knowledge, you would have to follow interpretivism research philosophy. There are three significant branches within epistemology: empiricism, rationalism and transcendental philosophy. There are four types of beliefs when considering truth and warrants: 1. warranted true beliefs : This type is called KNOWLEDGE. Epistemology can be categorized in to at least two types. Epistemology, characterized broadly, is an account of knowledge. Observable phenomena provide credible data, facts. An empirical researcher gives cognition (or understanding) a passive role, indicating that the object of study is recorded by the brain, but is not produced by the brain. But it wasn’t until around the late 1800s that philosophers came to see the wisdom in this. Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. Only observable phenomena can provide credible data, facts.
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