Its short tail makes up less than 20% of the length. Woodland Voles are adapted for fossorial (underground) living; they have thick short fur and their eyes, ears and tails are relatively small. Gestation lasts from 21-24 days. Woodland Voles are adapted for fossorial (underground) living; they have thick short fur and their eyes, ears and tails are relatively small. Size/Life Cycle. pp. Its weight ranges between 0.5–1.3 oz (14–37 g). Range territory size 700 to 2800 m^2; Home Range. The Woodland Vole (Microtus pinetorum) is a small vole with an average body mass of 26 g and a length of about 120 mm. Woodland voles are one of the smallest species, usually measuring less than four inches in length. Number of pups born in captivity ranged from one to six (Schadler and Butterstein 1979). Superfamily Muroidea. They are chunky rodents with chestnut-brown fur. , Woodland voles create high economic loss through the damage they cause to apple orchards.  Because they feed on roots and tubers, voles do not need to drink water much. The soft, silky fur is glossy brown or chestnut and is darker in the winter than in the summer. Most anything, given the rare opportunity (Whitaker) Habitat.  Females are fiercely loyal to their partners and are highly aggressive towards unfamiliar males.  Family groups of the vole are made of a breeding female, a breeding male, their 1–4 offspring and sometimes a few other members that serve as helpers.  They inhabit deciduous forests, dry fields, and apple orchards. Whitaker, J. O., and Hamilton, W. J. Females deliver several litters a year in underground nests built of dead grasses, leaves, and rootlets lined with fine pieces of grass. The woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) is a small vole found in eastern North America. Range and Habitat: The range is most of the eastern U.S., extreme southeastern Ontario, and Southwestern Quebec.  Alfisol and Ultisol soil types are particularly favored due to being favorable to the vole's burrowing system.  Helpers are immigrants from other groups. One of the smallest species of voles in North America, woodland voles grow between 4 and 5 inches long and weigh little more than an ounce. Litters range in size from 1-8 (usually 2-4) young. The largest species in North America is the water vole, which grows as large as eight or nine inches. Its short tail makes up less than 20% of the length. , In the north, the breeding season lasts from March to sometime between November and January. Meadow vole: Water & Prairie Voles. The root systems of trees are an important food source for vole and thus tree spacing affects the density of vole populations.  A new male in a group gives a non-breeding female a chance to breed although the resident breeding female is still an obstacle. However, they can also be found in other habitats from dry fields to the edges of coastal bays. Additionally, voles have short tails, while mice have long tails. It has a brown (light or dark) dorsal region with a whitish or silvery underside. (Kurta, 1995) Communication and Perception.  Staying in a group as a non-breeding individual is beneficial as burrow systems are major investments and a limited resource. When sensing danger or when surprised, woodland voles make … Size comparison between a six-foot-tall man, a masked shrew, a jumping mouse, and a woodland vole. 894–1531, This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 02:24. Highly variable; Deciduous forest in moist, friable soils in which they can burrow easily (Whitaker) Group emigration is uncommon and dependent on whether there are available positions in other groups. The red-backed vole and rock vole are primarily restricted to mountainous areas, and it is the meadow vole and woodland vole that are most often responsible in damage situations.  Voles feed on both the roots and stem system and the vegetation of plants, as well as fruits, seeds, bark, subterranean fungus and insects. (1998). Well adapted for a life of underground burrowing, the pest has small eyes … "Chemical cues are necessary but insufficient for reproductive activation of female pine voles (, "Behavioral suppression of female pine voles after replacement of the breeding male", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Woodland_vole&oldid=984085685, Fauna of the Plains-Midwest (United States), Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton.  Vole feeding costs apple growers annual losses of nearly $50 million. Breeding information: Woodland Voles breed nearly year round with the peak occurring in early spring. A study on Woodland Voles conducted in New York state reported that calculated mean home range values are 41.7 and 44.7 m2 for females and males respectively (Fitzgerald and … In addition, the breeding female in a family group will stress the reproduction of female helpers. It eats fruit, nuts and small insects, but is particularly keen on hazelnuts and blackberries. Average measurements: 121 mm (total length), 14-37 g (total weight) (Smithsonian) Predators. , The woodland vole lives throughout the eastern United States, ranging as far as Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. In the south, the breeding season continues throughout the year. Voles prefer wooded areas with high vertical vegetative stratification but also evergreen shrubs, ground cover, and old fallen logs. This results in a conflict between the surviving parent and its offspring of the same sexes for mating opportunities.  When a vole's partner dies, it is replaced by an unrelated individual. They are also susceptible to ectoparasites like lice, fleas, mites, and chiggers. A female will develop a vaginal plug after copulation which lasts for three days.  In order to enter estrus, a female must sense chemosignals in a male and have physical contact.  Other predators of voles include snakes, weasels and mountain lions. This makes them safe from hawks and owls. The woodland vole has a head and body length ranging between 3.25–4.75 in (83–121 mm) with a 0.5–1.5 in (13–38 mm) short tail.  Voles cache food, primarily during the winter. Adult voles are larger than shrews or mice. Woodland Vole home range size and dispersal distances are thought to be small in comparison to other species of voles.  Gestation lasts 20–24 days with 1–4 litters produced per year, each with 1–5 young. , Woodland voles live in family groups in burrow systems in home ranges around 14.75-17.75 in (40–45 cm). Woodland voles are approximately 118-130 mm (4.6-5.1 in) in total length, and weigh 20-35 g (0.7-1.4 oz).
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